Orchestrating immune responses: How size, shape and rigidity affect the immunogenicity of particulate vaccines.
Particulate carrier systems are promising drug delivery vehicles for subunit vaccination as they can enhance and direct the type of T cell response. In order to develop vaccines with optimal immunogenicity, a thorough understanding of parameters that could affect the strength and quality of immune responses is required. Pathogens have different dimensions and stimulate the immune system in a specific way. It is therefore not surprising that physicochemical characteristics of particulate vaccines, such as particle size, shape, and rigidity, affect multiple processes that impact their immunogenicity. Among these processes are the uptake of the particles from the site of administration, passage through lymphoid tissue and the uptake, antigen processing and activation of antigen-presenting cells. Herein, we systematically review the role of the size, shape and rigidity of particulate vaccines in enhancing and skewing T cell response and attempted to provide a "roadmap" for rational vaccine design.
J Control Release. 2016 JUL