Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Electron microscopy in transmission mode (TEM) is a technique for the visualization of particles using an electron source.
In contrast to Light Microscopy, where a light source is as used in, TEM uses an electrone source to visualize molecules and particles over a large size range (~0.1 nm to several mm). It further delivers information on morphology (size, shape) and partially also topography (surface characteristics) of particles. TEM is mostly applied for trouble shooting or additional particle characterization. Instruments typically require experienced operators and TEM-based methods have a low throughput. Sample preparation is crucial, and care should be taken not to introduce artifacts. Only a limited number of particles can typically be analyzed by TEM.