Imaging Flow Cytometry for Sizing and Counting of Subvisible Particles in Biotherapeutics
Imaging flow cytometry (IFC), a technique originally designed for cellular imaging, is featured by the parallel acquisition in brightfield (BF), fluorescence (FL), and side scattering channels. Introduced to the field of subvisible particle analysis in biopharmaceuticals roughly ten years ago, it has the potential to yield additional information, e.g., on particle origin. Here, we present an extensive, systematic development of masks for IFC image analysis to optimize the accuracy of size determination of polystyrene beads and pharmaceutically relevant particles (protein, silicone oil) in BF and FL channels. Based on the developed masks, particle sizing and counting by IFC are compared to flow imaging microscopy (FIM). Mask verification based on fluorescent polystyrene particles revealed good agreement between sizes obtained from IFC and FIM. In the evaluation of counting accuracy, IFC reported lower concentrations for polystyrene particle standards than FIM. For the analysis of fluorescently stained silicone oil and protein particles however, IFC FL imaging reported higher particle concentrations in the low micrometer size range. Overall, we identified IFC as suitable tool to generate supportive data for particle characterization purposes or trouble shooting activities, but not as routine quantitative technique, e.g., for subvisible particle analysis during drug product development or quality control.
Keywords: biopharmaceutical characterization; image analysis; imaging method; microparticles; particle size; protein aggregation; protein formulation.
J Pharm Sci. 2022 Jun.